The term vermiculite is used to characterize a mineral group that can expand when subjected to heat treatment and become wolf-shaped when expanded. This expansion process is called exfoliation. The name vermiculite is derived from the Latin word “vermiculare”, which means breeding wolves. Due to its very low density and insulation properties, expanded vermiculite has an important area of use as a soil regulator, lightweight construction and thermal insulation material. Expanded vermiculite is also used as an absorbent in some chemical processes due to its active, large chemical surface that can react. When vermiculite is ground to a fine grain in powder size, it is used as an additive in paints, plastics and other materials.

Knowledge of vermiculite and its typical properties began in the early years of 1824 by Thomas H. It dates back to Webb’s experiments in Worcester, Massachusetts. This intriguing name of Vermiculite was given by Webb for the fact that after the expansion of the mineral it looks like a pile of maggots. Vermiculite was only a scientific curiosity until it was thought that it could be used in industry at the beginning of the 1900s, the first commercial mining activity was carried out in Colorado in 1915. The material was sold as tungsten ash, but did not find enough buyers, the manufacturer went bankrupt. The first successful vermiculite mining was done by the Zonolite company in Libby, Montana in 1923, and the mine continued to be operated until 1990.
The largest vermiculite mine in the world is located in the Republic of South Africa. They produce significant quantities of vermiculite mines in America, China, Russia, Brazil, Japan, Zimbabwe and Australia. in 1999, there are three active vermiculite mines operating in the United States, two of which are located in South Carolina and the other in Virginia. From these mines, concentrated vermiculite is sent to expansion plants located in the country. In addition to the concentrated vermiculite supplied from the October domestic market, some plants also import vermiculite from other foreign sources. In particular, a total of 77,000 tons were imported from South Africa.


The most important vermiculite deposits known in Turkey are the Karakoç Mine, Malatya-Darende-Kuluncak, Eskişehir-Sarıcakaya and Elazığ-Harput-Arduçluk occurrences. M.T.The Malatya-Darende-Kuluncak vermiculite mineralizations studied by A and consisting of separate sectors are located in ultrabasic masses and their formation is attributed to alkaline intrusions that interrupt these ultrabasic masses. Ore with very low expansion rates (~2 times) cannot reach economic value. The reserve calculations made show that there is a possible reserve of 6-7 million tons in these occurrences (Aras, 1984). It has been observed that the Eskişehir-Sarıcakaya and Elazığ-Harput-Arduçluk deposits are also not at the desired level in terms of reserves and industrial use. Investigations carried out in recent years at the Sivas-Yıldızeli-Karakoç vermiculite site have revealed that this mineralization is economical in terms of reserves and use in industry.
This mineralization occurred as a result of the ultramafic mass with high pyroxene and amphibole content, such as the Palabora (South Africa) deposit, being cut by alkaline vein rocks. Field observations and evaluations by the General Directorate of MTA as a result of the expansion property with a probable reserve on 2,750,000 tons of unsorted unsorted ore vermiculite vermiculite vermiculite as a probable reserve of tons tons total 5.225.000 2.475.000 lower quality ore has been ident

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